The effects of dicamba on multiplication of embryogenic callus and somatic embryo on ARDA medium supplemented with different concentrations of dicamba were evaluated. The calli were subcultured to fresh medium with the same component at monthly intervals for 3 months. The results showed that the maximum fresh weight of embryogenic callus at 0.33 g and the highest frequency of somatic embryo formation at 30% were obtained from the 0.1 mg/l dicamba containing solidified medium, non significant with another concentrations of dicamba. Upon transferring secondary somatic embryo (SSE) to hormone-free MS medium with 3% sucrose, 200 mg/L ascorbic acid for 3 months, the highest number of shoots at 10.4 shoots/explants, number of roots at 8.20 roots/explants and complete plantlet at 7.20 plantlets/explants were obtained.
Keywords: embryogenic callus, somatic embryo, oil palm, dicamba
The effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on proliferation of shoots of Etlingera elatior were investigated. Initial shoot explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (KN) at 5 different concentrations (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg/l). All cultures were incubated at 25+2oC under cool white fluorescent light at intensity of 2,000 lux for 16 hours per day and maintained for 8 weeks. At the end of this period a 100% of multiple shoot formation was obtained on MS medium supplemented with both cytokinins at all concentrations. As regards the number of shoots, 3 mg/l BA containing medium gave the highest number of shoots at 10.62 shoots/explants, which was significantly different when compared to other concentrations. However, KN containing medium gave shoot length at 4.07 cm. which is higher than that obtained from BA containing one.
Keywords : Plant growth regulator, plant tissue culture, torch ginger
Haustorium embryos (HE) of oil palm were chopped into small pieces and treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) at various concentrations for 90 min, followed by culturing on ARDA medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l dicamba and 200 mg/l ascorbic acid. After culturing for 14 days, the 50% decrement of survival rate (LD50) of EMS was evaluated. The result showed that EMS at 0.79% gave 50% decrement of survival rate. After culture for 28 days, some pieces of chopped HE produced yellow embryogenic callus while some produced both embryogenic callus and somatic embryos. EMS at 1% gave the highest embryogenic callus formation alone at 66.67% while EMS at 0.75%. gave the highest embryogenic callus together with somatic embryo formation at 77.78%.
Keywords: Ethylmethanesulfonate, oil palm, embryogenic callus, somatic embryo
Flowering characteristics are somaclonal variations of oil palm (Eleais guigeensis Jacq.) in vitro which
cause damage to farming. Flowering and non-flowering vitro-plantlets of oil palm derived from culturing of
mature zygotic embryo [dura (D366) x pisifera (P172)] were used for investigating polymorphic DNA bands by
SSR marker. In this investigation, 9 pairs of primers; EgCIR0008, EgCIR0243, EgCIR0337, EgCIR0409, EgCIR0446,
EgCIR0465, EgCIR00781, EgCIR0905 and EgCIR1772 were applied. Seven out of 9 primers including EgCIR0008,
EgCIR0337, EgCIR0446, EgCIR0465, EgCIR00781, EgCIR0905 and EgCIR1772 gave polymorphism of DNA banding
and could be used as a key marker for screening in vitro flowering plantlets of oil palm. This study aims to
identify and screen abnormality of oil palm plantlet before transferring to field.
Keywords: Oil palm, somaclonal variation, simple sequence repeats (SSR), in vitro flowering
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of trunk strangulation, paclobutrazol and the
combination of the two methods on flowering and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) in bark and leaf
of longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design
(RCBD) having 4 treatments in 5 replications.The treatments were: (1) control (2) trunk strangulation (3) paclobutrazol and (4) trunk strangulation together with paclobutrazol. Sampling was collected every week from the barks and the leaves of longkong prior pre-treatment until flowering. The results showed that all of trunk strangulation and paclobutrazol application induced flowering in longkong approximately 3 times higher thanthat of control. Additionally, there was no significant difference between any total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) content of the treatments
Keywords: total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC), trunk strangulation, paclobutrazol, flowering
Chilling injuries of longkong fruits stored at 12°C were investigated. The results showed that chilling
injury symptoms occurred on the peel. Small sunken with brown spots were observed as the first visible
symptom when the fruits were stored for 6 days. When storage time increased, number and size of brown
spots increased. After transferring the fruits to a place at the room temperature, the wound browning areas
expanded and some of them fused with the old ones. The result of this anatomical study showed that the
exocarp cells in the browning areas were changed. The cells were flat and accumulated brown pigment.
Keywords : Chilling injury, anatomical study, longkong
Surveys of oil palm diseases at nursery stage were done in eleven provinces of southern Thailand. One
hundred and sixty three samples of leaf spot affecting by Curvularia oryzae were collected. Eight isolates of
C. oryzae which showed severe symptom on nursery oil palm were selected and tested for their ability to
cause disease on detached oil palm leaves and oil palm seedlings. It was found that C. oryzae isolate NK1
was the most virulent isolate and it was used in chemical and biological control testing. Among 9 fungicides
tested, mancozeb and prochloraz at 40 ppm was highly effective to control C. oryzae in Vitro. The ability
of Trichoderma spp. and Streptomyces spp. bioagents to control C. oryzae was also tested by dual-culture
tests. Trichoderma sp. isolate TM.2/1 inhibited C. oryzae mycelial growth by 90.22% while Streptomyces sp.
isolate NR8-2 inhibited by 81.88%.
Keywords: Oil palm, Curvularia oryzae, bologocal control, atagonistic
Spore germination and mycelial growth of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae
PSUM04, on medium containing different group of pesticides were investigated in laboratory. Each pesticide
group contained insecticides (cabaryl, imidacloprid and deltametrin)